What Is Elective Cesarean Section? – Complications

Elective cesarean section is also known as “Caesar or C-section”. This is a surgical procedure, that involves incisions in the mother’s abdomen (also called as laparotomy) and uterus ( also called as hysterotomy) to deliver babies. It needs regional anesthesia to avoid pain and then a horizontal or vertical incision in lower abdomen to expose uterus. Another incision is done in uterus for removing the baby and placenta. Other procedures, like tubal ligation can be performed during the cesarean delivery.
C-section deliveries are performed due to fetal or maternal problems which arise during labor. These can also be planned before the mother goes into labor. In United States of America, more than 30% of births deliveries are cesarean.

Causes OF Cesarean Delivery:

Women who plan to have a vaginal delivery sometimes require cesarean delivery. The following are some reasons:

  • An emergency that threatens the mother’s or infant’s life.
  • Excessive vaginal bleeding. This occurs if the placenta separates from uterus before infant is delivered. This is called “placental abruption”.
  • Baby is in a breech position or sideways when the labor begins.
  • Heart rate of baby suggests that he not tolerating the labor properly. This can be because of umbilical cord compression and placental problems.
  • If contractions are too weak, labor do not progress as it ought to be. This may be because of pelvis is small, baby is in abnormal position and baby is too big. If labor do not progress normally, first rupture the membranes. In most cases, medications are given to ensure that contractions are sufficient for few hours. Cesarean delivery is recommended, if the labor do not progress after few hours.

Risks For Child:

Fetal Injury:

Baby may be injured during uterine incision and extraction.

Neonatal Depression:

Baby can have adverse reactions to anesthesia given to mother. This causes a period of sluggishness or inactivity after the delivery.

Breastfeeding Problems:

Babies born by Cesarean section are less likely to breastfeed successfully than vaginal delivered babies.

Breathing Problems:

Baby born through C- section are likely to have breathing problems than babies delivered vaginally.

Potential for early delivery complications:

A study proved that there are more complications, if the Cesarean section is done few days earlier to suggested 39weeks.

Risks For Mother:

Cesarean section is associated with post operative adhesion risks, wound infections and, incision hernias. Surgery risks may increase due to various reasons, if done under emergency. Patient’s stomach can not be empty and this increases the anesthesia risks. Post spinal headaches and severe blood loss are other risks associated with cesarean.

Risks for Both Child and Mother:

Some studies revealed that mothers who had Cesarean babies take long periods to interact first with the child, as compared to mothers, had baby vaginally.
Both the child and mother are at higher risks for developing “hospital borne infection”, because of extended stays in hospital.

This was all about elective cesarean section and its complications.

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