Congenital Abnormality

Congenital abnormality is also known congenital anomaly, congenital malformation and most commonly, birth defects. This is a condition discovered at the time of birth due to a previously unseen malformation or genetic disorder

Types Of Congenital Abnormality:-

Congenital Physical Anomaly:

This abnormality is one observed in the structure of any body part. Anomalies can be either minor or severe. Examples of minor anomalies include a third nipple, fifth finger curvature or preauricular pits (these are tiny indentations of the skin near the ears).

Congenital Malformation is a physical defect which can be perceived as a problem. A form of malfunction which affects more than one body part is referred to as a malfunction syndrome.

Birth Defects:

These are types of congenital disorders and deformities which can bedue to a variety of factors including genetics, environmental or behavioral problems.

Genetic Disorders or Diseases:

Congenital abnormalities usually recognized later in life. Genetics disorders or diseases can be divided into single gene defects, multiple gene defects and chromosomal defects. Chromosomal defects involve loss or duplication of larger portions of chromosomes. Abnormalities of larger chromosomes have theirffect on different body parts or organ systems.

Congenital Metabolic Disease:

This is an inborn error of metabolism  or disorders of the metabolism. Most are single gene defects, inheritable and may cause defects in either body parts or  their functions.

Causes Of Congenital Abnormalities:

A specific cause or causes for these abnormalities is not yet known. However, most are due to genetics or Environmentalcauses.


This refers to the transfer or inheritance of abnormal genes from the parent to the child. There can also be a mutation in one of the germ cells (embryo or sperm) which later develop as a birth defect in the baby.

Environmental Causes:

These causes are related to the mother’s health and surrounding environment. These can include diet or vitamin deficiencies, , various infections or exposure to toxins. For example, drinking while pregnant, a folic acid deficiency and any kind of infection are environmental causes that can result in a birth defect.

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